Usa wahl präsident

usa wahl präsident

In der Präsidentschaftswahl in den Vereinigten Staaten standen auf der einen Seite die Demokraten James Middleton Cox und Franklin D. Roosevelt ( späterer US-Präsident), und auf der anderen die Republikaner Stimmen waren für die Wahl zum Präsidenten notwendig. Wer sich als Präsident zur Wahl stellt, gehört meistens zu einer der beiden größten Parteien der USA, zu den Demokraten oder den Republikanern. Überraschend ist der republikanische Kandidat Donald Trump zum Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten gewählt worden. Wer hat ihn gewählt - und warum. Die wichtigsten Fakten über die USA. Präsidentschaftswahl in den Vereinigten Staaten Wahlsystem nach Land. Januar , die Unterlagen für eine Teilnahme an der Präsidentschaftswahl bei der Bundeswahlbehörde ein, zu einem früheren Zeitpunkt als alle vorherigen Präsidenten. Vor gab es zahlreiche Wahlen, bei denen sich weder der Präsident noch der Vizepräsident um das Amt bewarben. Solche Konstellationen gab es bei den Wahlen , und Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Verfassungszusatzes im Jahr zum Einsatz. William Howard Taft Republikanische Partei. Das bedeutet, der Kandidat mit den meisten Stimmen wird alleiniger Sieger des Bundesstaates. Ein Kandidat benötigt pro Bundesstaat lediglich eine Wählerstimme mehr als irgendeiner seiner Mitbewerber — und es werden ihm direkt alle Wahlmännerstimmen dieses Staates zugesprochen.

Usa wahl präsident -

Kennedy ihr Gehalt gespendet. Liste der Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten. Beim Zurücksetzen des Passwortes ist ein Fehler aufgetreten. Allerdings könnten strengere Regeln schädlich sein, sagt er. Sicher sind bereits 20 Sitze mehr für die Demokraten.

Usa Wahl Präsident Video

Das US-Wahlsystem für Dummies (2008)

In , he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.

Nine months later, he was named the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. During his first two years in office, Obama signed many landmark bills into law.

After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit , he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U.

He also ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki.

After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney , Obama was sworn in for a second term in His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional United States v.

Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges ; same-sex marriage was fully legalized in after the Court ruled that a same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional in Obergefell.

He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting , indicating support for a ban on assault weapons , and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration.

In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U.

Obama left office in January with a 60 percent approval rating and currently resides in Washington, D. Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents.

Obama's parents met in in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa , where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship.

In late August only a few weeks after he was born , Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle , where they lived for a year.

During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June He then left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University , where he earned an M.

Obama's parents divorced in March He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in , [18] before he was killed in an automobile accident in , when Obama was 21 years old.

The couple married on Molokai on March 15, His wife and stepson followed sixteen months later in The family initially lived in a Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the Tebet subdistrict of south Jakarta.

From , they lived in a wealthier neighborhood in the Menteng subdistrict of central Jakarta. From age six to 10, Obama attended local Indonesian-language schools: In , Obama returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham.

He attended Punahou School — a private college preparatory school — with the aid of a scholarship from fifth grade until he graduated from high school in Obama later reflected on his years in Honolulu and wrote: In February , Obama made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to participate in the disinvestment from South Africa in response to that nation's policy of apartheid.

In a interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: Obama also has roots in Ireland; he met with his Irish cousins in Moneygall in May He also shares distant ancestors in common with George W.

Bush and Dick Cheney , among others. Obama lived with anthropologist Sheila Miyoshi Jager while he was a community organizer in Chicago in the s.

When they moved to Washington, D. In early , Michelle spoke about her husband's smoking habit and said that Barack had quit smoking. On his 55th birthday, August 4, , Obama penned an essay in Glamour , in which he described how his daughters and the presidency have made him a feminist.

Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life. He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as being detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known.

In January , Obama told Christianity Today: I believe in the redemptive death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I believe that faith gives me a path to be cleansed of sin and have eternal life.

My family didn't — frankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church.

So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead — being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat me.

Jeremiah Wright in October and became a member of Trinity in John's Episcopal Church , as well as Evergreen Chapel at Camp David , but the members of the family do not attend church on a regular basis.

Two years after graduating from Columbia, Obama was back in Chicago when he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project , a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Roseland , West Pullman , and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side.

He worked there as a community organizer from June to May The manuscript was published in mid as Dreams from My Father. From April to October , Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote , a voter registration campaign with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering , of , unregistered African Americans in the state, leading Crain's Chicago Business to name Obama to its list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.

In , he was listed as one of the lawyers in Buycks-Roberson v. Bank , 94 C N. From to , Obama served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago —which in had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project—and of the Joyce Foundation.

He was reelected to the Illinois Senate in , defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was re-elected again in In January , Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.

Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms. In May , Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a U.

He created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August Obama formally announced his candidacy in January Obama was an early opponent of the George W.

Bush administration's invasion of Iraq. Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun to not participate in the election resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving 15 candidates.

His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party. Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan , withdrew from the race in June Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 3, , [] becoming the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.

Obama announced on November 13, , that he would resign his Senate seat on November 16, , before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.

In December , President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.

Later in , Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act to add safeguards for personality-disorder military discharges.

He met with Mahmoud Abbas before Abbas became President of the Palestinian National Authority , and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi in which he condemned corruption within the Kenyan government.

Numerous candidates entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules.

During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.

John McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, and he selected Sarah Palin as his running mate. The two candidates engaged in three presidential debates in September and October On April 4, , Obama announced his reelection campaign for in a video titled "It Begins with Us" that he posted on his website and filed election papers with the Federal Election Commission.

On November 6, , Obama won electoral votes , exceeding the required for him to be reelected as president. Roosevelt to win the majority of the popular vote twice.

You elected us to focus on your jobs, not ours. And in the coming weeks and months, I am looking forward to reaching out and working with leaders of both parties.

The inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President took place on January 20, In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda directing the U.

Bush 's restoration of President Ronald Reagan 's Mexico City Policy prohibiting federal aid to international family planning organizations that perform or provide counseling about abortion.

The first bill signed into law by Obama was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of , relaxing the statute of limitations for equal-pay lawsuits.

Obama appointed two women to serve on the Supreme Court in the first two years of his Presidency.

She was confirmed on August 5, , bringing the number of women sitting simultaneously on the Court to three justices for the first time in American history.

On March 30, , Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act , a reconciliation bill that ended the process of the federal government giving subsidies to private banks to give out federally insured loans, increased the Pell Grant scholarship award, and made changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

He ended plans for a return of human spaceflight to the moon and development of the Ares I rocket, Ares V rocket and Constellation program , in favor of funding Earth science projects, a new rocket type, and research and development for an eventual manned mission to Mars, and ongoing missions to the International Space Station.

President Obama's State of the Union Address focused on themes of education and innovation, stressing the importance of innovation economics to make the United States more competitive globally.

He spoke of a five-year freeze in domestic spending, eliminating tax breaks for oil companies and reversing tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans, banning congressional earmarks , and reducing healthcare costs.

Hate Crimes Prevention Act , a measure that expanded the United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.

On December 22, , Obama signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of , which fulfilled a key promise made in the presidential campaign [] [] to end the Don't ask, don't tell policy of that had prevented gay and lesbian people from serving openly in the United States Armed Forces.

As a candidate for the Illinois state senate in , Obama had said that he favored legalizing same-sex marriage. During his second inaugural address on January 21, , [] Obama became the first U.

President in office to call for full equality for gay Americans: In , the Obama Administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to rule in favor of same-sex couples in the cases of Hollingsworth v.

Perry regarding same-sex marriage [] and United States v. Windsor regarding the Defense of Marriage Act. Hodges ruling same-sex marriage to be a fundamental right , Obama asserted that, "This decision affirms what millions of Americans already believe in their hearts: When all Americans are treated as equal we are all more free.

On March 11, , Obama created the White House Council on Women and Girls , which formed part of the Office of Intergovernmental Affairs , having been established by Executive Order with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to the welfare of American women and girls.

Obama intervened in the troubled automotive industry [] in March , renewing loans for General Motors and Chrysler to continue operations while reorganizing.

Over the following months the White House set terms for both firms' bankruptcies, including the sale of Chrysler to Italian automaker Fiat [] and a reorganization of GM giving the U.

The Bush and Obama administrations authorized spending and loan guarantees from the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department. As it did throughout , the unemployment rate rose in , reaching a peak in October at Following a decrease to 9.

Within a month of the midterm elections , Obama announced a compromise deal with the Congressional Republican leadership that included a temporary, two-year extension of the and income tax rates , a one-year payroll tax reduction, continuation of unemployment benefits, and a new rate and exemption amount for estate taxes.

In December , Obama declared that growing income inequality is a "defining challenge of our time" and called on Congress to bolster the safety net and raise wages.

This came on the heels of the nationwide strikes of fast-food workers and Pope Francis ' criticism of inequality and trickle-down economics.

Obama urged Congress to ratify a nation free trade pact called the Trans-Pacific Partnership. On September 30, , the Obama administration proposed new regulations on power plants, factories, and oil refineries in an attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to curb global warming.

On April 20, , an explosion destroyed an offshore drilling rig at the Macondo Prospect in the Gulf of Mexico , causing a major sustained oil leak. Obama visited the Gulf, announced a federal investigation, and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and concurrent Congressional hearings.

He then announced a six-month moratorium on new deepwater drilling permits and leases, pending regulatory review. In July , Obama expressed reservations and stated he "would reject the Keystone XL pipeline if it increased carbon pollution" or "greenhouse emissions".

Obama has emphasized the conservation of federal lands during his term in office. Obama called for Congress to pass legislation reforming health care in the United States , a key campaign promise and a top legislative goal.

It would also make it illegal for insurers to drop sick people or deny them coverage for pre-existing conditions , and require every American to carry health coverage.

The plan also includes medical spending cuts and taxes on insurance companies that offer expensive plans. On July 14, , House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,page plan for overhauling the U.

On November 7, , a health care bill featuring the public option was passed in the House. According to White House and CBO figures, the maximum share of income that enrollees would have to pay would vary depending on their income relative to the federal poverty level.

The costs of these provisions are offset by taxes, fees, and cost-saving measures, such as new Medicare taxes for those in high-income brackets , taxes on indoor tanning , cuts to the Medicare Advantage program in favor of traditional Medicare, and fees on medical devices and pharmaceutical companies; [] there is also a tax penalty for those who do not obtain health insurance, unless they are exempt due to low income or other reasons.

The law faced several legal challenges, primarily based on the argument that an individual mandate requiring Americans to buy health insurance was unconstitutional.

Sebelius that the mandate was constitutional under the U. Hobby Lobby the Court ruled that "closely-held" for-profit corporations could be exempt on religious grounds under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act from regulations adopted under the ACA that would have required them to pay for insurance that covered certain contraceptives.

In June , the Court ruled 6—3 in King v. Burwell that subsidies to help individuals and families purchase health insurance were authorized for those doing so on both the federal exchange and state exchanges, not only those purchasing plans "established by the State", as the statute reads.

Prior to June , Obama offered substantial support for a broadly-based "All of the above" approach to domestic energy policy , which Obama has maintained since his first term and which he last confirmed at his State of the Union speech in January to a mixed reception by both parties.

In June , Obama made indications that his administration would consider a shift towards an energy policy more closely tuned to the manufacturing industry and its impact on the domestic economy.

On January 16, , one month after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting , Obama signed 23 executive orders and outlined a series of sweeping proposals regarding gun control.

Obama called the November 2, election , where the Democratic Party lost 63 seats in, and control of, the House of Representatives, [] "humbling" and a "shellacking".

On November 10, , President Obama recommended the Federal Communications Commission reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality.

On March 19, Obama continued his outreach to the Muslim world, releasing a New Year's video message to the people and government of Iran. On June 26, , Obama responded to the Iranian government's actions towards protesters following Iran's presidential election by saying: We see it and we condemn it.

On September 24, , Obama became the first sitting U. President to preside over a meeting of the United Nations Security Council.

In March , Obama took a public stance against plans by the government of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to continue building Jewish housing projects in predominantly Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem.

Senate ratified it in December In December , Obama announced that he intended to normalize relationships between Cuba and the United States. In March , Obama declared that he had authorized U.

Before leaving office, Obama said German Chancellor Angela Merkel had been his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as president.

On February 27, , Obama announced that combat operations in Iraq would end within 18 months. His remarks were made to a group of Marines preparing for deployment to Afghanistan.

Obama said, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: On August 19, , the last U. Remaining troops transitioned from combat operations to counter-terrorism and the training, equipping, and advising of Iraqi security forces.

ISIS continued to gain ground and to commit widespread massacres and ethnic cleansing. In August , during the Sinjar massacre , Obama ordered a campaign of U.

By the end of , 3, American ground troops were committed to the conflict [] and 16, sorties were flown over the battlefield, primarily by U.

Air Force and Navy pilots. In early , with the addition of the "Panther Brigade" of the 82nd Airborne Division the number of U.

Early in his presidency, Obama moved to bolster U. McKiernan , with former Special Forces commander Lt. McChrystal in May , indicating that McChrystal's Special Forces experience would facilitate the use of counterinsurgency tactics in the war.

In October , the White House announced a plan to keep U. Forces in Afghanistan indefinitely in light of the deteriorating security situation.

In , the United States vetoed a Security Council resolution condemning Israeli settlements , with the United States being the only nation to do so.

In , Jeffrey Goldberg reported that, in Obama's view, "with each new settlement announcement, Netanyahu is moving his country down a path toward near-total isolation.

He said that both movements seek to bring justice and equal rights to historically persecuted peoples. He explained, "To me, being pro-Israel and pro-Jewish is part and parcel with the values that I've been fighting for since I was politically conscious and started getting involved in politics.

They soon turned violent. In March, as forces loyal to Gaddafi advanced on rebels across Libya, calls for a no-fly zone came from around the world, including Europe, the Arab League , and a resolution [] passed unanimously by the U.

The next day, on Obama's orders, the U. On August 18, , several months after the start of the Syrian Civil War , Obama issued a written statement that said: In the wake of a chemical weapons attack in Syria, formally blamed by the Obama administration on the Assad government, Obama chose not to enforce the "red line" he had pledged [] and, rather than authorize the promised military action against Assad, went along with the Russia-brokered deal that led to Assad giving up chemical weapons ; however attacks with chlorine gas continued.

Starting with information received from Central Intelligence Agency operatives in July , the CIA developed intelligence over the next several months that determined what they believed to be the hideout of Osama bin Laden.

In November , the Obama administration opened negotiations with Iran to prevent it from acquiring nuclear weapons , which included an interim agreement.

Negotiations took two years with numerous delays, with a deal being announced July 14, The deal, titled the " Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action ", saw the removal of sanctions in exchange for measures that would prevent Iran from producing nuclear weapons.

While Obama hailed the agreement as being a step towards a more hopeful world, the deal drew strong criticism from Republican and conservative quarters, and from Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

Since the spring of , secret meetings were conducted between the United States and Cuba in the neutral locations of Canada and Vatican City.

Obama visited Havana, Cuba for two days in March , becoming the first sitting U. President to arrive since Calvin Coolidge in He gave a speech encouraging the world to increase economic ties via investments and trade with the continent, and lauded the progresses made in education , infrastructure, and economy.

He also criticized the lack of democracy and leaders who refuse to step aside, discrimination against minorities LGBT people, religious groups and ethnicities , and corruption.

He suggested an intensified democratization and free trade, to significantly improve the quality of life for Africans. After Russia's invasion of Crimea in , military intervention in Syria in , and the interference in the U.

Obama's family history, upbringing, and Ivy League education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the s through participation in the civil rights movement.

Obama is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator. This bounce lasted until around June , when his approval numbers dropped back to where they were previously.

Polls showed strong support for Obama in other countries both before and during his presidency. This was only the fifth occurrence since the start of the 20th century of a head of state being extended this invitation, following Charles de Gaulle in , Nelson Mandela in , Queen Elizabeth II in and Pope Benedict XVI in On October 9, , the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that Obama had won the Nobel Peace Prize "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples".

Barack Obama's presidency ended at noon on January 20, , immediately following the inauguration of his Republican successor, Donald Trump.

On March 2, , the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum awarded the annual Profile in Courage Award to Obama "for his enduring commitment to democratic ideals and elevating the standard of political courage.

The seminar was aimed at the engagement with a new generation as well as an appeal for their participation in politics.

While in Berlin on May 25, Obama made a joint public appearance with Chancellor Angela Merkel where he stressed inclusion and for leaders to question themselves, Obama having been formally invited to Berlin while still in office as part of an effort to boost Merkel's re-election campaign.

Barack and Michelle Obama signed a deal on May 22 to produce docu-series, documentaries and features for Netflix under the Obama's newly formed production company, Higher Ground Productions.

On the deal, Michelle said "I have always believed in the power of storytelling to inspire us, to make us think differently about the world around us, and to help us open our minds and hearts to others".

After President Trump announced his withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement on June 1, Obama released a statement disagreeing with the choice: After Senate Republicans revealed the Better Care Reconciliation Act of , their discussion draft of a health care bill to replace the Affordable Care Act, on June 22, Obama released a Facebook post calling the bill "a massive transfer of wealth from middle-class and poor families to the richest people in America.

Bush , Bill Clinton , and George W. Obama hosted the inaugural summit of the Obama Foundation in Chicago on October Obama intends for the foundation to be the central focus of his post-presidency and part of his ambitions for his subsequent activities following his presidency to be more consequential than his time in office.

Obama went on an international trip from November 28 to December 2, , and visited China, India and France. In addition, he held a town hall for young leaders, organized by the Obama Foundation.

C, on October 24, The package was intercepted by the Secret Service during routine mail screenings.

Similar packages were sent to several other Democratic leaders, mostly those who voiced strong objections to the policies of Donald Trump and to CNN.

Debbie Wasserman Schultz was addressed as the sender of the package. On 26 October, , Cesar Sayoc was arrested and faces five federal charges in Manhattan carrying a combined maximum sentence of 48 years behind bars in relation to the pipe bombs.

Many commentators credit Obama with averting a threatened depression and pulling the economy back from the Great Recession.

Bureau of Labor Statistics , the Obama administration created Passed as a response to the financial crisis of —08 , it brought the most significant changes to financial regulation in the United States since the regulatory reform that followed the Great Depression under Democratic President Franklin D.

Hate Crimes Prevention Act expanded existing federal hate crime laws in the United States to apply to crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability, and dropped the prerequisite that the victim be engaging in a federally protected activity.

Obama continued drone strikes against Islamist militants begun by the previous administration. In , the last year of his presidency, the US dropped 26, bombs on seven different countries.

By contrast, the federal prison population increased significantly under presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Barack disambiguation and Obama disambiguation. Early life and career of Barack Obama.

Family of Barack Obama. Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama. United States Senate election in Illinois, United States Senate career of Barack Obama.

United States presidential election, ; Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, ; and Barack Obama presidential campaign, United States presidential election, and Barack Obama presidential campaign, Presidency of Barack Obama.

For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Presidency of Barack Obama. First days of Barack Obama's presidency. Social policy of the Barack Obama administration.

Economic policy of the Barack Obama administration. Climate change policy of the United States. Health care reform in the United States.

Energy policy of the Obama administration. Foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration. Iraq War and American-led intervention in Iraq —present.

War in Afghanistan — Death of Osama bin Laden. Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. Public image of Barack Obama. International reaction to the United States presidential election, and International reactions to the United States presidential election, Barack Obama Presidential Center.

Retrieved April 5, Vaughn February 19, The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, Archived from the original on October 26, Retrieved December 12, Department of Health, State of Hawaii.

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Barack Obama D-IL , presidential candidate: In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures and as the leader of the only remaining global superpower.

The president also leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The president possesses significant domestic and international hard and soft power.

Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government. It vests the executive power of the United States in the president.

The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.

The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves , and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances.

The power of the presidency has grown substantially since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.

Through the Electoral College , registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term.

This is the only federal election in the United States which is not decided by popular vote. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term.

In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Donald Trump of New York is the 45th and current president. He assumed office on January 20, The new states were independent of each other as nation states [19] and recognized the necessity of closely coordinating their efforts against the British.

It could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens.

The states agreed to a resolution that settled competing western land claims. The Articles took effect on March 1, , when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.

In , the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs.

They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates , and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest.

Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in , Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September in Annapolis, Maryland , with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms.

When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.

Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington 's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia.

When the Constitutional Convention convened in May , the 12 state delegations in attendance Rhode Island did not send delegates brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments.

Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature.

The Presentment Clause requires that any bill passed by Congress must be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options:.

The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit.

Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.

City of New York , U. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional.

One of the most important of all executive powers is the president's role as Commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces.

The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.

The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.

The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.

According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.

The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.

The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.

Presidents have historically initiated the process for going to war, [31] [32] but critics have charged that there have been several conflicts in which presidents did not get official declarations, including Theodore Roosevelt 's military move into Panama in , [31] the Korean War , [31] the Vietnam War , [31] and the invasions of Grenada in [33] and Panama in The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.

Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.

General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".

Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.

When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.

Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Within the Executive Office, the president's innermost layer of aides and their assistants are located in the White House Office.

Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.

When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad. Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e.

The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.

However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.

When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.

Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.

The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

George Washington first claimed the privilege when Congress requested to see Chief Justice John Jay 's notes from an unpopular treaty negotiation with Great Britain.

While not enshrined in the Constitution, or any other law, Washington's action created the precedent for the privilege. When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.

Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.

Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.

United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. The Constitution's Ineligibility Clause prevents the president and all other executive officers from simultaneously being a member of Congress.

Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress. However, the president can take an indirect role in shaping legislation, especially if the president's political party has a majority in one or both houses of Congress.

For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.

The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.

These reports may be either written or oral, but today the greatest in importance are given as the oral State of the Union addresses, which often outline the president's legislative proposals for the coming year.

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.

One critic charged that presidents could appoint a "virtual army of 'czars' — each wholly unaccountable to Congress yet tasked with spearheading major policy efforts for the White House".

If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn. For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.

As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization.

Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children.

Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.

Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Presidential traditions also involve the president's role as head of government. Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition.

During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.

The modern presidency holds the president as one of the nation's premier celebrities. Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office".

Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT [66] and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.

The nation's Founding Fathers expected the Congress —which was the first branch of government described in the Constitution —to be the dominant branch of government; they did not expect a strong executive department.

Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one must:.

A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

The modern presidential campaign begins before the primary elections , which the two major political parties use to clear the field of candidates before their national nominating conventions , where the most successful candidate is made the party's nominee for president.

Typically, the party's presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee, and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention.

The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions.

Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives. The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.

As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January.

If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.

Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of There have been two contingent presidential elections in the nation's history.

A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.

Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election.

Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.

When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [98] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.

In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Four years later, with the U. In response to the unprecedented length of Roosevelt's presidency, the Twenty-second Amendment was adopted in The amendment bars anyone from being elected president more than twice, or once if that person served more than two years 24 months of another president's four-year term.

Truman , president when this term limit came into force, was exempted from its limitations, and briefly sought a second full term—to which he would have otherwise been ineligible for election, as he had been president for more than two years of Roosevelt's fourth term—before he withdrew from the election.

Since the amendment's adoption, five presidents have served two full terms: Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H.

Bush sought a second term, but were defeated. Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it.

Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F. Kennedy 's unexpired term, was eligible for a second full term in , but withdrew from Democratic Primary.

Additionally, Gerald Ford , who served out the last two years and five months of Nixon's second term, sought a full term, but was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the election.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W.

Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

Section 1 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment states that the vice president becomes president upon the removal from office, death, or resignation of the preceding president.

Speaker of the House, then, if necessary, the President pro tempore of the Senate, and then if necessary, the eligible heads of federal executive departments who form the president's Cabinet.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article II, Section 1, Clause 7 of the Constitution, may not be increased or reduced during his or her current term of office.

The White House in Washington, D. The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.

At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

Camp David , officially titled Naval Support Facility Thurmont, a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland , is the president's country residence.

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s.

Blair House , located next to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Park , serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed.

The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet.

Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.

Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family. As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.

Prior to , all former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death.

Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

There are currently since January 20, five living former presidents. In order of office they are:. Jimmy Carter age 94 since Bush age 94 since Bill Clinton age 72 since Bush age 72 since Barack Obama age 57 since Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

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The power of the presidency has grown substantially since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College , registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term.

This is the only federal election in the United States which is not decided by popular vote. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term.

In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Donald Trump of New York is the 45th and current president.

He assumed office on January 20, The new states were independent of each other as nation states [19] and recognized the necessity of closely coordinating their efforts against the British.

It could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens.

The states agreed to a resolution that settled competing western land claims. The Articles took effect on March 1, , when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.

In , the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs.

They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates , and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest.

Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in , Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September in Annapolis, Maryland , with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms.

When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.

Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington 's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia.

When the Constitutional Convention convened in May , the 12 state delegations in attendance Rhode Island did not send delegates brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments.

Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature.

The Presentment Clause requires that any bill passed by Congress must be presented to the president before it can become law.

Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options:. The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit.

Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.

City of New York , U. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional. One of the most important of all executive powers is the president's role as Commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces.

The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.

The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.

The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.

According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.

The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.

The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.

Presidents have historically initiated the process for going to war, [31] [32] but critics have charged that there have been several conflicts in which presidents did not get official declarations, including Theodore Roosevelt 's military move into Panama in , [31] the Korean War , [31] the Vietnam War , [31] and the invasions of Grenada in [33] and Panama in The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.

Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.

General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".

Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.

When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.

Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Within the Executive Office, the president's innermost layer of aides and their assistants are located in the White House Office.

Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.

When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.

Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.

However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.

When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.

Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.

The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

George Washington first claimed the privilege when Congress requested to see Chief Justice John Jay 's notes from an unpopular treaty negotiation with Great Britain.

While not enshrined in the Constitution, or any other law, Washington's action created the precedent for the privilege.

When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.

Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.

Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.

United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. The Constitution's Ineligibility Clause prevents the president and all other executive officers from simultaneously being a member of Congress.

Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress. However, the president can take an indirect role in shaping legislation, especially if the president's political party has a majority in one or both houses of Congress.

For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.

The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.

These reports may be either written or oral, but today the greatest in importance are given as the oral State of the Union addresses, which often outline the president's legislative proposals for the coming year.

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress. One critic charged that presidents could appoint a "virtual army of 'czars' — each wholly unaccountable to Congress yet tasked with spearheading major policy efforts for the White House".

If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn. For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.

As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization.

Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children.

Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.

Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Presidential traditions also involve the president's role as head of government. Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition.

During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.

The modern presidency holds the president as one of the nation's premier celebrities. Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office".

Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT [66] and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.

The nation's Founding Fathers expected the Congress —which was the first branch of government described in the Constitution —to be the dominant branch of government; they did not expect a strong executive department.

Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one must:. A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

The modern presidential campaign begins before the primary elections , which the two major political parties use to clear the field of candidates before their national nominating conventions , where the most successful candidate is made the party's nominee for president.

Typically, the party's presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee, and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention.

The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.

The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.

As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January.

If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.

Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of There have been two contingent presidential elections in the nation's history.

A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first. Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election.

Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.

When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [98] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term. In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Four years later, with the U. In response to the unprecedented length of Roosevelt's presidency, the Twenty-second Amendment was adopted in The amendment bars anyone from being elected president more than twice, or once if that person served more than two years 24 months of another president's four-year term.

Truman , president when this term limit came into force, was exempted from its limitations, and briefly sought a second full term—to which he would have otherwise been ineligible for election, as he had been president for more than two years of Roosevelt's fourth term—before he withdrew from the election.

Since the amendment's adoption, five presidents have served two full terms: Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.

Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.

Kennedy 's unexpired term, was eligible for a second full term in , but withdrew from Democratic Primary. Additionally, Gerald Ford , who served out the last two years and five months of Nixon's second term, sought a full term, but was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the election.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W.

Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

Section 1 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment states that the vice president becomes president upon the removal from office, death, or resignation of the preceding president.

Speaker of the House, then, if necessary, the President pro tempore of the Senate, and then if necessary, the eligible heads of federal executive departments who form the president's Cabinet.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article II, Section 1, Clause 7 of the Constitution, may not be increased or reduced during his or her current term of office.

The White House in Washington, D. The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.

At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

Camp David , officially titled Naval Support Facility Thurmont, a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland , is the president's country residence.

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s. Blair House , located next to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Park , serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed.

The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet. Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.

Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.

As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.

Prior to , all former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death. Bush , and all subsequent presidents.

Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

There are currently since January 20, five living former presidents. In order of office they are:. Jimmy Carter age 94 since Bush age 94 since Bill Clinton age 72 since Bush age 72 since Barack Obama age 57 since Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P.

For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation. Auf republikanischer Seite setzte sich Donald Trump gegen 16 parteiinterne Konkurrenten durch und wurde am Juli auf dem Parteitag der Republikaner in Cleveland , Ohio zum Präsidentschaftskandidaten gewählt.

In den meisten Meinungsumfragen wurden Trump nur wenig Chancen auf den Gewinn der Präsidentschaftswahl im November vorhergesagt. Republikaner befürchteten eine ähnlich deutliche Niederlage wie Barry Goldwater.

Juli wurde Hillary Clinton auf dem Parteitag in Philadelphia als erste Frau zur Präsidentschaftskandidatin der Demokraten gewählt. April gab der Senator Bernie Sanders seine Kandidatur bekannt.

Sanders war zu dem Zeitpunkt parteilos, gehörte aber vor dem Bekanntgeben seiner Kandidatur bereits der Demokratischen Fraktion im Senat an.

Im November trat er der Demokratischen Partei bei. Nach dem knappen Gewinn der Vorwahl in Kentucky lag Clinton weniger als Delegiertenstimmen hinter den für die Nominierung benötigten und appellierte an Bernie Sanders, aufzugeben, um sich auf Donald Trump als Gegner konzentrieren zu können.

Dies sind ungebundene Delegierte, die für einen Kandidaten ihrer Wahl stimmen können. Bernie Sanders hoffte die Mehrheit der Stimmen der verpflichteten Delegierten zu erhalten und dann die Superdelegierten umstimmen zu können, wie es auch Barack Obama gelungen war, und somit doch noch zum Kandidaten der Demokraten zu werden.

Er würde bei der Präsidentschaftswahl für Clinton stimmen, da es einzig darum ginge, die Wahl Donald Trumps zum Präsidenten zu verhindern.

Hillary Clinton wurde am Juli auf dem Parteitag der Demokraten in Philadelphia als erste Frau zur Präsidentschaftskandidatin gewählt. Dabei erhielt sie die Unterstützung ihres einzigen bedeutenden Konkurrenten aus den Vorwahlen, Bernie Sanders.

Jedoch kam es zu Protesten der Anhänger von Sanders. Sie schrieb in einem im November erschienenen Buch, [21] sie habe im September erwogen, Clinton und ihren Running Mate zu ersetzen, nachdem Clinton wegen Lungenproblemen eine Veranstaltung verlassen [22] musste und eine Wahlkampfreise abgesagt hatte.

Alle drei Kandidaten stehen der Tea-Party-Bewegung nahe. Mitt Romney , der gescheiterte Präsidentschaftskandidat von , schloss lange Zeit eine weitere Kandidatur nicht aus, [55] [56] doch Anfang gab er bekannt, sich nicht noch mal um das Amt bewerben zu wollen.

Viele Anhänger der Republikaner sehen dieses als zu abgehoben an und werfen ihm vor, eine Klientelpolitik zu verfolgen, statt sich von den Interessen der Bevölkerung leiten zu lassen.

Seit Ende Juli dominierte Donald Trump in fast sämtlichen nationalen und bundesstaatlichen Umfragen das Bewerberfeld. Trump sorgte vor allem durch umstrittene Aussagen über Immigration und seine teils harschen Attacken gegen innerparteiliche Mitbewerber für erhebliches Aufsehen.

Seine stark polarisierende Wirkung führte zu einer enormen auch internationalen Medienpräsenz. Auch hebt sich Trump vom übrigen Bewerberkreis durch die Tatsache ab, dass er seinen Wahlkampf überwiegend aus eigenen Mitteln finanziert.

Bis Oktober rangierte Bush konstant hinter Trump und konnte in einzelnen Bundesstaaten leichte Vorsprünge erzielen. Ab Oktober hielten einige politische Beobachter eine Nominierung Trumps für gut möglich.

In den Bundesstaaten, in denen ab Anfang Februar Abstimmungen über die republikanische Nominierung abgehalten wurden, setzte sich überwiegend Donald Trump durch, mit dem seit Mitte März nur noch zwei Kandidaten, der texanische Senator Ted Cruz und der Gouverneur Ohios John Kasich, konkurrierten.

Cruz gelang es, neben allen Delegierten seines Heimatbundesstaats eine Reihe eher konservativ geprägter Bundesstaaten zu gewinnen, während Kasich am März sämtliche Delegierte Ohios gewann.

Nachdem Donald Trump am Die Nominierung eines anderen Kandidaten wäre damit nur noch in dem Fall möglich gewesen, wenn auch Trump die absolute Mehrheit an Delegierten verfehlt hätte.

Dafür wäre auf dem Parteitag ein zweiter Wahlgang nötig gewesen, in dem die meisten Delegierten nicht mehr an das Vorwahlergebnis gebunden wären.

Nachdem Trump am 3. Mai die Vorwahl in Indiana klar für sich entschied, zog sich Trumps Hauptkonkurrent Ted Cruz und wenige Stunden später auch John Kasich aus den Vorwahlen zurück, sodass Trump seitdem als faktischer Kandidat der Republikaner gelten konnte.

Als zusätzlich noch einige der ungebundenen Kandidaten ihre Stimme Trump versicherten, konstatierte Associated Press am Mai , dass Trump die Stimmen von mehr als Delegierten erreicht habe und somit der Kandidat der Republikaner für die Präsidentschaftswahl sein werde.

Pence hatte sich zuvor bei der am 3. Nachdem Trump sich jedoch überraschend klar durchsetzte und in der Konsequenz als Kandidat der Partei feststand, erklärte der Gouverneur seine Unterstützung für Trump im eigentlichen Wahlkampf.

Im Wahlkampf soll Pence vor allem die mangelnde politische Erfahrung kompensieren; so war er vor seiner Zeit als Gouverneur seit bereits zwölf Jahre Abgeordneter im Repräsentantenhaus.

Aus dieser Zeit verfügt er auch über gute Beziehung zu wichtigen Funktionären und Funktionsträgern der Republikaner.

Auch soll Pence durch seine als ruhig und sachlich beschriebene Persönlichkeit Trumps extrovertiertes Auftreten ausgleichen sowie evangelikale Wähler ansprechen, die Trump skeptisch gegenüber stehen, aber einen wichtigen Teil der republikanischen Wählerschaft bilden.

Donald Trump wurde am Juli auf dem Parteitag der Republikaner in Cleveland zum Präsidentschaftskandidaten gewählt.

Eisenhower im Jahr , der nie ein politisches Amt bekleidete. Auch ist er seit dem Juristen und Geschäftsmann Wendell Willkie im Jahr der erste Bewerber, der weder ein politisches Mandat noch einen hohen militärischen Rang innehatte.

Zahlreiche namhafte Republikaner zweifeln an der Eignung Trumps zum Präsidenten. Johnson , zu ihrem Kandidaten bei der anstehenden Präsidentschaftswahl.

Dies wurde auf die relative Unbeliebtheit der wahrscheinlichen Kandidaten Donald Trump und Hillary Clinton zurückgeführt.

Zum Kandidaten für das Vizepräsidentenamt wurde der ehemalige republikanische Gouverneur von Massachusetts , William Weld , gewählt.

Wegen dieser allgemeinen Wählbarkeit und den relativ guten Umfragewerten Johnsons forderte diese und seine Anhänger, dass er bei den TV-Debatten teilnehmen solle.

Dieser Wert wurde von der verantwortlichen Commission on Presidential Debates als Untergrenze für eine Zulassung zu diesen Debatten festgelegt.

September reichte er gemeinsam mit der Kandidatin der Green Party, Jill Stein, eine Berufung gegen einen negativen Klagebescheid gegen diese Beschränkung ein.

Green Party Vereinigte Staaten. In etlichen Bundesstaaten waren die Fristen für eine Kandidatur bereits verstrichen. Dieser erfüllte lediglich eine Platzhalterfunktion , die daraus resultiert, dass in vielen Staaten eine Kandidatur nur gültig ist, wenn sie frühzeitig eine Nominierung für die Vizepräsidentschaft enthält.

Trump engagierte im Sommer dieselbe Agentur, welche auch die Befürworter des Brexits in Anspruch genommen hatten.

Erwachsenen in den USA. Hillary Clinton hatte im Vergleich 5. Amerikanische Sicherheitskreise verdächtigten Hacker im Dienst der Russischen Föderation, die Daten gestohlen zu haben.

Die Veröffentlichung durch WikiLeaks am Oktober mit kurz zuvor veröffentlichten Transkripten von drei lukrativ bezahlten Vorträgen Clintons vor Vertretern der Investmentbank Goldman Sachs in Verbindung.

Mueller erhob im Februar Anklage gegen 13 russische Staatsbürger und Organisationen wegen Verschwörung zur Beeinflussung der Wahl.

Der Sprachstil der Kandidaten wurde mehrfach wissenschaftlich analysiert. Der demokratische Bewerber Bernie Sanders erschien in der Leseverständlichkeit deutlich komplexer.

Der spätere Wahlsieger Trump benutzte bei öffentlichen Auftritten zumeist kurze, klar strukturierte Sätze und häufig den Imperativ, wie bei seinem Slogan Make America great again.

Die Worte hatten wenige Silben. Das Vokabular war nur wenig schwieriger. Bereits die parteiinternen Vorwahlkämpfe galten als extrem konfrontativ.

Trump hatte bereits zu Beginn seiner Kandidatur mehr Follower in den sozialen Medien als alle seine parteiinternen Gegenkandidaten zusammen.

Er hatte im Show- und Celebrityumfeld seit Jahrzehnten Erfahrung und entsprechende Vernetzung und wurde bevorzugt zitiert und besprochen.

Er setzte sich bewusst von der im Politikbetrieb gebräuchlichen Rhetorik ab. Seine meist kurzen Sätze waren eher wie Punchlines strukturiert, indem die wichtigsten Worte am Ende folgten.

Sie waren auch für die mediale Wiedergabe sehr gut geeignet. Professionelle politische Akteure, darunter auch Clinton, wichen bei kritischen Fragen und Situationen häufig in Abstraktion aus.

Unter Druck benutzten sie eher einschränkende Floskeln und verallgemeinernde Begriffe. Trump hingegen blieb konsequent bei der vereinfachten Satzstruktur und signalisierte so auch Distanz vom professionellen Politikbetrieb.

Er wiederholte Fragen zu genaueren Vorgehensweisen, anstatt sie zu beantworten, und verwies auf Anekdoten, anstatt sich auf Details festzulegen.

Trump benutzt nach einer linguistischen Untersuchung einen deutlich femininer konnotierten Sprachstil als alle seine Konkurrenten, auch als Hillary Clinton.

Als eher feminin gilt ein Sprachstil, der eher soziale und emotionale Aspekte anspricht, expressiv und dynamisch ist und dies über den stärkeren Gebrauch von Hilfsverben und weiteren entsprechenden Markern umsetzt.

Als grundlegendes Dilemma Clintons beschreibt die Untersuchung, an sie werde der Anspruch gestellt, sich maskuliner zu geben, um für eine Führungsrolle in Betracht zu kommen.

Clinton verfiel insbesondere in kritischen Zeiten ihrer Karriere in genderspezifisch unterschiedlich verstandene Ausdrucksweisen.

Trumps Sprachstil wurde nach einer vergleichenden computerlinguistischen Studie femininer eingeschätzt als der Hillary Clintons.

Bush, aber männlicher als Barack Obama. Ted Cruz war der letztplatzierte und so sprachlich männlichste Republikaner. November wurde in allgemeiner Wahl, durch die jeweiligen Wahlberechtigten der 50 Bundesstaaten sowie Washington D.

Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika ermittelt. Entgegen diesem am 8. November ermittelten Stimmenverhältnis des Wahlleutekollegiums gab es bei der tatsächlichen Wahl zum Präsidenten am Dezember durch eben jenes Gremium insgesamt sieben abweichende Stimmabgaben.

Schätzungen zufolge lag die Wahlbeteiligung am 8. Die Wahlmänner des Electoral College gaben am Dezember ihre Stimmen für die Ämter des Präsidenten und des Vizepräsidenten ab.

Die Stimmzettel wurden versiegelt; sie wurden am 6. Zwar wurde das offizielle Ergebnis erst im Januar verkündet [1] , jedoch war schon am Dezember deutlich, dass es sieben Abweichler gab.

Zwei Wahlmänner in Texas , die für Trump hätten stimmen sollen, verweigerten dies und stimmten für John Kasich bzw.

Fünf Wahlmänner, die Clinton hätten wählen sollen, stimmten ebenfalls für andere Personen. Sieben Wahlmänner mit abweichenden Stimmen gab es im Electoral College noch nie.

Die bis höchste Zahl gab es mit sechs abweichenden Stimmen. Es gab bis zum Dezember Versuche zum Beispiel durch Briefe, E-Mails oder Anrufe, teilweise auch durch Gewalt- und Mordandrohungen [] , Wahlmänner der Republikaner dahingehend zu beeinflussen, nicht für Donald Trump zu stimmen.

Januar wurde Donald Trump als Präsident vereidigt und in sein Amt eingeführt , womit seine Präsidentschaft begann. Gewählt Donald Trump Republikanische Partei.

Vorwahlergebnisse der Präsidentschaftswahl in den Vereinigten Staaten Russische Einflussnahme auf den Wahlkampf in den Vereinigten Staaten Hillary Clinton Announces Presidential Bid.

Jim Webb drops out of Democratic primary race , Yahoo News, Ex-Republikaner will Hillary links überholen.

Der Link wurde automatisch als defekt markiert. Lessig drops out of presidential race , Politico, 2. Obama würde Hillary Clinton unterstützen. Sanders declares as Democrat in NH primary.

The New Republic ,

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